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This region represents the southernmost extent of the Cascade Range that stretches all the way up through Oregon and Washington. Its forests are vegetationally similar to those of the Sierra Nevada, despite parent material differences (those of the Cascades are more recent and predominantly igneous, while those of the northern Sierra Nevada are primarily metamorphic). The Cascades subregion contains chaparral and blue oak/gray pine woodland in the lower elevations and ponderosa pine, montane fir/pine, and lodgepole pine forests at higher elevations.
Typical insect and disease problems:
Native bark beetles including Ips, Scolytus, and Dendroctonus species
Heterobasidion root disease
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